is a condition of an abnormal curve of the spine. Curves are often S or C-shaped. It can occur at any age, but it is usually diagnosed early in childhood, during growth spurts. There are many degrees of severity of scoliosis so that treatment varies, depending on its location and degree of curvature.

Types of Scoliosis

There are 4 types of scoliosis. They are Neuromuscular, Congenital, Degenerative and Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS). AIS is the most common type of scoliosis, affecting those between 10-18 years old.

Cause for AIS

Cause for AIS is mostly unknown. However, in cases where cause is known, doctors classify curves as Nonstructural and Structural. Scoliosis can run in families so a child with parents/siblings with scoliosis should have regular medical screenings.

Signs of scoliosis

– Asymmetrical Body
– Uneven shoulders
– Uneven waist; tilting to one side
– Uneven hips; one side may seem higher than the other
– Prominent shoulder blade on one side
– One side of the rib cage jutting forward
– Rip hump present when bending forward
– Spine looks curvy (back view)


Spine is structurally normal and curve is temporary. Identification of root cause needed to treat and correct the curvature of the spine. An example of nonstructural scoliosis is leg-length discrepancy.


Structure spine is caused by a disease, injury, infection or birth defect.

People with scoliosis may experience numbness or muscle weakness in lower limbs or pain in shoulders and arms. In Singapore,  In Singapore, the prevalence of AIS is 1.4 per cent at the age of 11-12 and 2.2 per cent at the age of 13-14. It affects girls seven times more than in boys. The HPB spine screening in schools has effectively identified children for further checks on possible scoliosis diagnosis and allow parents to seek for immediate intervention for their children.

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