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It refers to individuals with toes pointed inwards when walking or standing. It is most common in children under age two who are developing posture and balance, and may involve one or both feet. It can be triggered by one of more of the following factors:
A common foot deformity noted at birth that causes the front half of the foot, or forefoot, to turn inward.
An inward twisting of the shin bones (the bones that are located between the knee and the ankle).
Children with in-toe caused by this condition may tend to trip easily.
An inward twisting of the thigh bone (known as the femur, the bone located between the hip and knee).
There is a greater-than-normal bend in the upper part of the leg, causing the upper leg to rotate inward.
It is typically detected between ages 4 to 6 as a result of stiff hip muscles due to the position of the baby in the uterus.
In-toe has a tendency to run in families. It can also be related to existing medical problems such as cerebral palsy. It usually self-corrects without the need for medical intervention.
However, if in-toeing is severe, involving leg and hip rotation while not improving by the age of two, it is best to seek medical advice from a pediatrician or a certified orthotist.
Customized in-toe gait bio-mechanical insoles are designed to restrict in-toeing from rotational deformities of the foot (metatarsus adductors), altering the break of the ball of the foot during propulsion to encourage realignment of the hip.